Recirculating deep water culture systems (also known as RDWC) use a reservoir to provide water for multiple buckets. Traditional methods using unconnected buckets require individual testing for pH and conductivity factor (CF). This has led to innovations that have seen the removal of air stones in favour of connecting multiple buckets together and recirculating the water. As the water is reintroduced to the bucket it is broken up and aerated with the use of spray nozzles. Constant recirculating oxygenates the water and ensures a good mix of nutrients CF and stabilizes pH throughout the entire system so testing is required only at one point.